Velocity Architecture is composed of 4 key components:
- Custom NVMe SSD- Able to output a sustained speed of 2.4 GB/s, rather than peak speed. The Seagate expandable storage cards are the same speed as the internal SSD so games will run the same regardless of which they are stored on. Raw throughput is 40x faster than the peak speed of Xbox One's 5400 RPM hard drive.
- Hardware accelerated decompression- Xbox Series X has custom hardware designed specifically for decompression. This allows assets to be compressed on the SSD, and then decompressed before being fed into the memory and GPU, effectively doubling the SSD speed to 4.8 GB/s. The custom hardware MS designed for decompression frees up 4 of the Zen 2 CPU cores for use on other things.
- DirectStorage API- File Storage API's have largely remained the same for more than 30 years. However, DirectStorage gives devs fine tuned control of the I/O, allow them to setup multiple I/O queues, and minimize I/O latency.
- Sampler Feedback Streaming- MS discovered that GPU's are only using about 1/3rd of the textures loaded onto the RAM in any given scene, which is very inefficient. SFS allows only the textures that are needed for any given scene to be loaded onto the RAM just in time for the GPU to use them, effectively increasing I/O output speed and RAM amount by 2.5x when it comes to textures.